Professor of medieval history, University of Southampton.
A. Curry, « English Armies in the Fifteenth Century », Armies, Armies and Fortifications in the Hundred Years War, A. Curry et M. Hughes (ed.), Woodbridge, The Boydell Press, 1994, p. 48-60.
For example, for 1423-5 and 1428-9: BNF ms fr, 4485, 4488.
J. Stevenson, Letters and Papers Illustrative of the Wars of the English in France during the reign of Henry the Sixth, King of England, Rolls Series, 2 vols, London, Longman, 1861-1864, p. 540-546.
London, Lambeth Palace MS 506, fol. 16v-20r.
K.B. McFarlane, « William Worcestre : A Preliminary Survey », Studies Presented to Sir Hilary Jenkinson, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1957, p. 196-221, reprinted in K.B. McFarlane, England in the Fifteenth Century. Collected Essays, Gerald Harriss (ed.), London, The Hambledon Press, 1981, p. 199-224.
As the baillis were customarily also captain of a garrison, the retinues for their office are sometimes included within the numbers for the garrison they commanded (as at Arques for the bailli of Caux, and Essay for the bailli of Alençon,). The retinue of the bailli of Mantes is listed under Mantes but a separate number given for the official retinue. The retinues of the baillis of Caen and of Rouen are given as discrete entries.
F. Dubosc, « Manuscrit inédit tiré des archives de la maison de Matignon », Journal des Savants de Normandie, Rouen, 1844, p. 33-51. The Matignon archive also contained copies of other documents which are also in Lambeth Palace MS 506. These included the declaration of the garrisons for 1433-1434, which was also printed in the same issue of the Journal des Savants but dated to 1434-1435.
BnF, ms fr. 25773/1071. No garrisons are grouped together, but for Rouen separate retinues are given for the town, castle and bridge.
BnF, ms fr. 25773/1112, summarised in A. E. Marshall, « The Role of English War Captains in England and Normandy 1436-1461 », unpublished MA dissertation, University of Wales (Swansea), 1975, p. 282-284. Bacqueville appears in the earlier but not the later list. It was not a location regularly garrisoned by the English.
BnF, ms fr. 26061/2995.
The manuscript was later owned by members of the Hungerford family. Catalogue of the Arundel manuscripts in the library of the College of Arms, London, 1829, p. 74. See also A Catalogue of Manuscripts in the College of Arms : Collections, vol. 1, London, 1988. The Records and Collections of the College of Arms, by Sir Anthony Richard Wagner, London, 1952, gives an excellent account of the history and extent of the archives of the College of Arms as a whole.
See C.T. Allmand, « France-Angleterre à la fin de la guerre de Cent ans : le Boke of Noblesse de William Worcester », dans La “France anglaise” au Moyen Âge. Actes du 111e Congrès national des sociétés savantes (Poitiers, 1986), Section d’histoire médiévale et de philologie, t. 1, Paris, CTHS, 1988, p. 103-112.
Folio 274, a boar ; folio 275 that of an anchor/crossbow. There is no watermark discernible on folio 276. For a complete listing of contemporary watermarks see C.M. Briquet, Les filigranes, A. Stevenson (ed.), Amsterdam, 1968. See E. Heawood, « Sources of Early English Paper-Supply », Transactions of the Bibliographical Society, series 2, vol. 10, The Library, 1929, p. 286 for a similar anchor/crossbow mark in a Paston Letter of 1457 and in the St Andrews Letter Book of 1440 and 1443. This suggests paper from the Troyes region. See also V. Mosin, Anchor Watermarks, Amsterdam, The Paper Publications Society, 1973, p. 7.
BnF, Clairambault 156/159.
For discussion of the events of Bedford’s visit to England see R.A. Griffiths, The Reign of King Henry VI : the exercice of royal authority, 1422-1461, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1981, p. 196-198, and J. Barker, Conquest. The English Kingdom of France 1417-1450, London, Harvard University Press, 2009, p. 203-207.
H. Nicolas (ed), Proceedings of the Privy Council of England, vol. IV, p. 222-232.
A. Curry (ed.), Parliament Rolls of Medieval England, 1275-1504. XI. Henry VI, 1432-1445, Woodbridge, The Boydell Press, 2005, p. 102-113.
J. Stevenson, Letters and Papers…, op. cit., II, ii, p. 547-548.
Lambeth MS 506 ff. 22v-23r also contains a list of the garrisons of Maine and their costs, printed in J. Stevenson, Letters and Papers…, op. cit., II, ii, p. 551-552.
For the reforms in general see R.A. Newhall, Muster and Review, A Problem of English Military Administration, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1940, p. 118-120.
BnF, ms fr. 26427/33.
BnF, ms fr. 26058/2314.
See, for instance, a series of indentures in BnF, manuscrit français 26058/2370-85.
He had held the captaincy since 12 February 1431 (Arch. nat. 63/10/75), and he remained in office until his death (Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Charter Foreign 324).
BnF, nouv. acq. fr. 1482/129 (order to pay, following the indenture).
Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Charter Foreign 314 (« quittance » dated 6 March 1435). The shortfall of seven mounted archers in the creu and temporary absences of troops led to a deduction of 13 l. 14 s. 6 d.t. in wages. No gains of war were made over the quarter from 29 September to 28 December.
A. Curry, « The Organisation of Field Armies in Lancastrian Normandy », Armies, Chivalry and Warfare in Medieval Britain and France, Harlaxton Medieval Studies, vol. VII, M. Strickland (ed.), Stamford, 1998, p. 207-233.
Sir Roland Standish was guarding the town in October 1431 as its fortifications were demolished (BnF, ms fr. 25770/682). The town was recaptured and refortified by the French from 1440 and proved a thorn in the flesh of the English.
BnF, pièces originales 2659 Scales 5 ; BnF, ms fr. 26059/2500.
J. Stevenson, Letters and Papers…, op. cit., II, ii, p. 541.
I am grateful to the College of Arms for permission to view this text and to produce a transcript here. Thanks also to Matthew Jones, their archivist.