The obligatory passage point
Enrolment and involvement
Extension and network irreversibility
This first step aims to analyze stakeholders’ interests and issues and their
degree of convergence. Human and non-human actors (e.g., technical objects,
laws, constraints) are introduced at this stage.
This step aims to formulate questions that bring stakeholders together and
to move each entity from a blocking position to cooperation, thus leading to
This is a place or a statement that can produce convergence in the network
conception. This is a necessary step for the irreversibility of the process but an
These are alternative mechanisms that reduce complex situations to symbolic
forms. Investment forms can be defined as "the work carried out by an actor-translator able to replace difficult entities with a set of smaller ones which are
more homogeneous and easier to manage and to control" (Callon, 1988: 87).
This concept is used to describe everything that flows between the various
entities of the situation under study. Callon (1988) distinguishes four types of
intermediaries: information (e.g, paper, discs), technical objects, money, and
people and their skills.
When actors’ interests and issues are analyzed, a problematization of the context
is produced, and an obligatory passage point is reached; it is subsequently
necessary to assign roles to actors and involve them in the network.
The strength of the network depends on how it is extended. It is an operation
that attempts to increase the network entities, from the centre to the periphery.
New entities become involved in the network, expanding its spectrum and giving
greater consistency to the project.